Explore the works below to learn more about the history of German LGBTQ communities during and after the Holocaust. The following list contains key works in English. For a full list, including works in German, contact Dr. Newsome.
Imperial & Weimar Germany 1871-1933
- Beachy, Robert. Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity. (Alfred A. Knopf, 2015).
- Marhoefer, Laurie. Sex and the Weimar Republic: German Homosexual Emancipation and the Rise of the Nazis. (University of Toronto Press, 2015). (Read Dr. Newsome’s review here.)
Nazi Germany, 1933-1945
- Beck, Gad. An Underground Life: Memoirs of a Gay Jew in Nazi Berlin. Trans. by Allison Brown. (University of Wisconsin Press, 2000).
- Heger, Heinz. The Men with the Pink Triangle: The True Life-and-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps. 2nd ed. Trans. by David Fernbach. (Alyson Books, 1994).
- Seel, Pierre. I, Pierre Seel, Deported Homosexual: A Memoir of Nazi Terror. Translated by Joachim Neugroschel. (Basic Books, 1995)
- Schoppmann, Claudia. Days of Masquerade: Life Stories of Lesbians During the Third Reich. Translated by Allison Brown. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. (While not an autobiography, this book contains interviews with lesbians who survived the Holocaust.)
English Language Books & Articles
- Fischer, Erica. Aimée and Jaguar: A Love Story, Berlin 1943. Translated by Edna McCown. (Harper Collins, 1995).
- Giles, Geoffrey J. “The Persecution of Gay Men and Lesbians during the Third Reich.” In The Routledge History of the Holocaust, edited by Jonathan C. Friedman, 385-396. (Routledge, 2011).
- Grau, Günter and Claudia Schoppman, eds. Hidden Holocaust? Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45. Translated by Patrick Camiller. (Cassel, 1995).
- Herzog, Dagmar, ed. Sexuality and German Fascism. (Berghahn Books, 2005).
- Huneke, Samuel Clowes. “The Duplicity of Tolerance: Lesbian Experiences in Nazi Berlin” in The Journal of Contemporary History 54.1 (April 2017): 30-59.
- Marhoefer, Lauri. “Lesbianism, Transvestism, and the Nazi State: A Microhistory of a Gestapo Investigation, 1939-1943,” in The American Historical Review. Nr. 121, Issue 4 (October 2016): 1167-1195.
- Setterington, Ken. Branded by the Pink Triangle. (Second Story Press, 2013).
- Wackerfuss, Andrew. Stormtrooper Families: Homosexuality and Community in the Early Nazi Movement. (Harrington Park Press, 2015).
- Paragraph 175. Produced and directed by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman. Telling Pictures. 2000. DVD
- We Were Marked with a Big A. Directed by Elke Jeanrond and Joeseph Weishaupt. Produced by: Mediengruppe Schwabing, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and Norddeutscher Rundfunk. 1994. DVD
Curators Corner: The extraordinary stories behind the objects in the US Holocaust Memorial Museum’s collections.
- Frieda Belinfante Collection: The story of a lesbian resistance fighter in the Netherlands.
- Documenting the Nazi Persecution of Gays: the Josef Kohut/Wilhelm Kroepfl Collection.
- “The Nazi Persecution of the Gay Community during the Holocaust.” (USHMM Facebook Live video; 2019 LGBTQ Pride Month)
- “Do You Remember When?” Interactive exhibit on the 17-page diary that Manfred Lewin gave to his boyfriend Gad Beck in Nazi Germany.
- USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia: Persecution of Homosexuals in the Third Reich
- USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia: Lesbians and the Third Reich
Germany After the Holocaust
- Evans, Jennifer and Elissa Mailänder, “Cross-Dressing, Male Intimacy and the Violence of Transgression in Third Reich Photography.” German History (June 2020): 1-24.
- Evans, Jennifer. “Harmless kisses and infinite loops: Making space for queer place in twenty-first century Berlin.” In Queer Cities, Queer Cultures: Europe since 1945, edited by Matt Cook and Jennifer V. Evans, 75-94. London: Bloomsbury, 2014.
- Evans, Jennifer. “Decriminalization, Seduction, and ‘Unnatural Desire’ in the German Democratic Republic.” Feminist Studies 36, no. 3 (October 2010): 553-577.
- Herzog, Dagmar. Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
- Jensen, Erik N. “The Pink Triangle and Political Consciousness: Gays, Lesbians, and the Memory of Nazi Persecution.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11, No. 1/2 , Special Issue: Sexuality and German Fascism. (Jan. – Apr., 2002): 319-349.
- Kurze, Arnaud. “The Coming Out of Memory: The Holocaust, Homosexuality, and Dealing with the Past.” Kritika Kultura, Issue 33-34 (2020): 761-785.
- McLellan, Josie. “Glad to be Gay behind the Wall: Gay & Lesbian Activism in East Germany,” History Workshop Journal, Issue 74 (Autumn, 2012): 105-130.
- McLellan, Josie. Love in the Time of Communism: Intimacy and Sexuality in the GDR. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
- Moeller, Robert. “Private Acts, Public Anxieties, and the Fight to Decriminalize Male Homosexuality in West Germany.” Feminist Studies 36, no. 3 (Fall 2010): 528-552.
- Newsome, W. Jake “Liberation Was Only for Others: Breaking the Silence in Germany Surrounding the Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals.” In The Holocaust in History and Memory, Vol. 7 (2014): 53-71. (PDF)
- Rorholm, Marnie and Kem Gambrell. “The Pink Triangle as an Interruptive Symbol.” Journal of Hate Studies 15, no. 1 (2019): 63-81. (PDF)
- Seifert, Dorthe. “Between Silence and License: The Representation of the National Socialist Persecution of Homosexuality in Anglo-American Fiction and Film.” History and Memory 15, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 2003): 94-129.
- Whisnant, Clayton J. Male Homosexuality in West Germany: Between Persecution and Freedom, 1945-1969. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
- White, Katharine. “East Germany’s Red Woodstock: The 1973 Festival between the “Carnivalesque” and the Everyday,” Central European History 51 (2018): 585-610.
- Wilke, Christiane. “Remembering Complexity? Memorials for Nazi Victims in Berlin.” International Journal of Transitional Justice. 7, no. 1 (March 2013): 136-156.